So Far... So Good by Chris Baldwin

By Justin

This week I’m going to go over what we have covered, mainly due to the fact that we have essentially covered a few millions years worth of evolution, both physically and socially. After this weeks’ blog, things are going to start to get a little weird…


Before we do a mini conclusion, I want to touch on on final subject which will act as a bridge from what I have discussed to the more esoteric and weird sounding subjects I will be moving onto. This subject is the concept of tribe mentality.

So what is tribe mentality? Well, it’s pretty straight forward, everyone in a social group doing the same sort of things.

Why is this a problem? The answer reminds me of something my school teachers used to say, “If all your friends jumped off a cliff, would you?”. Tribe mentality essentially dictates that the answer is yes.

Pop Back

Let’s pop back two million, five hundred eighty-eight thousand years ago at the start Pleistocene era. This is when something pretty rad started to happen; around the time that people began to learn from each other. In terms of basic survival, this was vital! If you learn how too make a weapon from a rock, you’re one person hunting. If you can teach 10 people how to make a similar weapon, then that’s 10 people hunting. If each of them teach 10 people, you become the most dominant tribe!

The ability to effectively communicate and teach turned a collection of individuals; each possessing different tasks into a group of people all able to teach each other different abilities. You end up with a group of multi-skilled  individuals able to work together as a team, thus beginning the step forward away from other animals and toward becoming the most dominant species on the planet.


We aren’t here just to to discuss sharing skills on a social level, we also need to talk about the more innate aspects of communication and learning; this is the nitty-gritty of tribe mentality! Naturally occurring hierarchy is something that’s prevalent in most social groups, from a small “tribe” of people all the way out to entire countries.

In the sense of Pleistocene humans, if a person has the best ability to catch food, stay alive and they can show you how you will follow him/her, those best at these things will have have offspring with the same natural abilities.  If there are traits of this person that keep them alive then they will be imitated by other tribe members; “imitating common behaviours is a simple heuristic that will get you the correct behaviour most of the time at smaller cost than subjecting alternative behaviours to costly test.” (

Evidence would suggest that it is much more efficient to just copy someone who’s better than you at something than it is to trial and error your own method, especially when it’s a literal life and death situation. This was where we start to see evolution influence by social actions,  “Conformity probably evolved in concert with human capacities for imitation. In theoretical models at least, conformity is an advantage even when reliance on social learning is scant.’ (The Evolution of Subjective Commitment to Groups: A Tribal Instincts Hypothesis, Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd, The Evolution of Subjective Commitment to Groups: A Tribal Instincts Hypothesis). The probability is that social learning and instructional communicative learning evolved around the same time and for the same reasons.

It is also important to note that those best at imitating the strongest will also have offspring who are naturally good at following/imitating.  As time went on, the strongest lead the way with everyone else following, the ones that didn’t imitate had a lower chance of survival, this is natural selection at its finest.

“Then, in such culturally evolved cooperative social environments, social selection within groups favoured genes that gave rise to new, more pro-social motives.” (The Evolution of Subjective Commitment to Groups: A Tribal Instincts Hypothesis, Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd,The Evolution of Subjective Commitment to Groups: A Tribal Instincts Hypothesis).


So, where have we been? We started by looking at the development of the brain; more specifically  the human brain. We looked at the reptile brain, which basic function was to make sure your hear beats, temperature regulates itself etc. The next step was the limbic system, this is is comprised of various bits but the main three I focused on were.


This deals with memory and learning, because it’s located within the limbic system it also associates emotional information with memory and learning. So back in the hunter gatherer days, if you went somewhere and felt afraid, you would remember how to get there but also feel like you probably don’t wanna go there again. Interestingly, the section of the brain that deals with the sense of smell is located around the same area as the hippocampus, which is why smell memories are the most powerful. You can see why it evolved this way in terms of survival from predators. You would smell an animal and react much quicker that seeing it then reacting etc.


The amygdala plays a key role on your emotional responses, including pleasure, fear, panic etc. This is the part of your brain that floods your system with hormones like adrenaline or cortisol which help you either run away, or stand and fight.

Basal Ganglia:

This works with the amygdala and regulates reward emotions, it also regulates habit formation based on repetition. This can be good when learning a new task from you tribe leader and then feeling good when they approve. So each time you do a good job your brain rewards you which makes you want to do it again. Thus, learning to do what your tribe does will release hormones to make you feel good about “fitting in”. This is also the same part of the brain that’s triggered when taking drugs, which is how addictions are formed.


We then took a quick over view of the philosophies around the social acceptance of of consumerism and capitalism. With reference to Bernard Mandeville and the Fable of the Bees.

Followed closely by the usage of propaganda in the World Wars, and how these techniques designed to used emotional content to generate support of the war were then used in advertising campaigns in order to target the consumers emotions and create a need for the product.

This began with ad campaigns featuring doctors who would recommend cigarette brands for “health reasons”, appealing the the inbuilt need to be “safe” and healthy. These soon became more advanced and began to appeal to the nature of “fitting in” with your “tribe”.

With subcultures become more and more prevalent, the question of “where do I belong” became more and more important. How do I show people how successful I am and why I’m top of their tribe? I can buy a Porsche! How do I show girls how cool I am? Well, James Dean wears Levis, as does the captain of the football team. I’ll do what they do so I’m as cool as they are!

As you can see, all those tens of thousands of years ago, humans were learning how to hunt from each other. Where to go for the best food and where not to go. Which caves make for good places to sleep and which caves smelled like bears.

The basic functioning of humans and their brains hasn’t really changed much. Hunting becomes going to work, staying safe means having money to pay bills, and attracting potential mates becomes wearing the right clothes. This is how psychological advertising works; targeting the exact regions of the brain responsible for emotions and memory associations.

Anthropological studies suggests that it was easier to mimic the leaders and other members on the tribe to blend in and stay safe. It was also more efficient to do what the majority did, instead of doing your own thing. Why waste time with trial and error of a new hunting technique when you could copy one proven to work and survive? Wasted time in this scenario could (and did) end up in deaths. So the ones most adept at copying survived and passed on their “copying genes”. By the time Edward Bernays popped up with his psychological advertising, the circuitry it targeted had had tens of thousands of years’ worth of testing. Proving it was a simple matter of changing the people’s perspective on what would best help them survive, and what would best demonstrate that they are viable mates for passing on genes.

So what now?

Next week we begin out journey to the desert of the real…

Consumerism - An Enquiry into the Origin Of Moral Virtue by Chris Baldwin

By Justin


Back in the Day

When things like consumerism and capitalism are discussed, it’s often in relation to the beginnings of the industrial revolution. Names like Adam Smith are often mentioned but consumerism actually has a much longer history.

60,000 years ago Homosapiens left the continent of Africa and moved around the world heading to Asia, Australia and Europe. Starting settlements wherever they ended up.

Around 40-50,000 years ago some of them settled in Turkey, and that’s where modern day archaeologists made a pretty big discovery; hand crafted beads from around 43,000 years ago. Now, this may not seem like a big deal but it was actually a phenomenon!

Up until this point humans have only made tools and other objects needed for tasks, hunting and food prep etc! What is phenomenal about these beads is the fact they were made for decoration. This is one of the very first signs of human culture and using objects for status. There were beads to show what clan you belonged to, beads to show you had given birth to children, beads to show you were a warrior etc.

By the time Humans had settled in western Europe they were mass producing these beads and other cultural indicators.

In essence, life didn’t change too much from early settlements to around the 17th century. Cave dwellings became shacks etc etc, but in terms of life not much had changed. People didn’t own too much; except the now established “ruling class”, who owned a the majority of things, used as cultural indicators to show who was “on top”.

In the early 18th century transport links were improving, towns and cities were growing at an increasing rate and improvements in manufacturing meant there were more goods and higher concentrations of people to see/buy them.

This was the beginnings of consumerism which was soon hit with a backlash from religious groups who declared that people seemed to care more about the condition of their houses than their “souls”.


The Fable of the Bees

In 1723 Doctor by the name of Bernard Mandeville wrote a story called The Fable of the Bees. Mandeville already had a reputation as a scandalous libertine! This story only further cemented that. The basic crux of Mandeville’s argument in the fable was that private vices were, in fact, for the public good.

Basically, buying things meant more things needed to be made, which meant more people being employed in production, which meant more wages being paid, which lead to more disposable cash being available to buy more things. He was, of course, totally correct! This lead to vast social improvements, more money for society in general and the birth of the middle class.

Not long after Adam Smith released The Wealth of Nationssolidified the idea of consumerism, and laid the ground work for capitalism. There main difference here being  that Adam Smith’s version of capitalism held that the value of an object was based on labour, which stayed central to most economists’ ideas until it, ironically. became central to Marxism.

Here, I’d like to just remind you of 40,000 years before this when beads were first used as status symbols. This was being repeated, but this time with trends moving towards fashion and were indicators of wealth, status and success.


Something Changed....

The first world war marked a turning point in advertising, “following the experiences of war time propaganda and the need to manipulate public opinion in the first total war, psychological advertising was introduced” (Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present - page 6, David Welch). Here is where we begin to see the widespread usage of the new nomination of behavioural psychology with advertising.

The main change in advertising here was from using adverts to inform the public of a product and its usage to using psychology to create a need for the product, to create a reality where buying the product would somehow improve the person’s life/wellbeing. This was largely based on the works of Edward Bernays, the nephew of Sigmund Freud. Bernays’ 1928 book Propaganda was an exploration into the usage of propaganda to effect politics, social change etc. He went on to promote the idea of using similar techniques in the marketing and advertising of products. Historically Bernays is know as the father of modern public relations.

This is also around the time where we departed from the Adam Smith school of thought around value being based on labour, and moved towards value being based on how much the product was desired, the desire which was created by inventing the need to own the product, using slogans like “a universal symbol of achievement” to align ownership of a product with social status and evidence of success!


Next week we would look over the ground covered so far and connect a few dots before moving onto the next few sections. 

Origin of the Human Brain by Chris Baldwin

By Justin

Week 2

So last week I mentioned the three layers, they are Reptile, Limbic and Neocortex. Last week I mentioned the building the house analogy, you build the foundation first, then walls and ceilings. The human brain was “constructed” much in the same way, the reptilian brain being the oldest foundation of brain which we inherited from prehistoric reptiles.


Sooooooo this week...

The first thing I’d like to focus on this week is the human brain and its origins, last week I touched briefly on the reptile brain and its basic innate functions, this week I’d like to expand on the three sections of the brain and what they are responsible for.

Viewing it in three distinct groups is referred to as the The Triune Brain, First proposed by Neuroscientist Paul D. MacLean in the 1960s. The human brain is much more complex and is comprised of many more “sections” but in terms of evolution it actually splits up quite nicely into these three bits. A nice example of this is that pretty much all reptiles alive today have a version of the reptilian brain that we have, just without the other two sections.


Reptile Brain

The text book name for this is the brain stem.  It comprises a central nervous system (nerves and muscles n stuff that makes you move and not die), and a “computer” to control things like breathing, body temperature regulation and heart rate. Imagine if you had to manually make sure you took regular breaths and that your heart actually pumped blood... you’d go mad, well you wouldn’t you’d probably die!

The reptile brain also takes control of spacial awareness, which boils down to, “That tree is over there and im over here. There’s some space between us I can move around in before I hit that tree!” This obviously helps with perception and judging how far away something is, but also helps with knowing what’s yours in terms of territory. So we can “mark off” an area which is classed as “safe” or “mine”. This means we can set up “mental barriers” in our heads relating to the space around us. If something crosses the line into what is ours, it is automatically a threat and will probably get eaten... maybe. Either way having “territory” and being specially aware of it helps to identify possible threats.

It is also handy when knowing the difference between something being small or far away. This is a massive thing in terms of perception which I'm going to touch on later in another essay. But, for now, it’s basically, “This cow is small, and that ones far away, yeah?”


Limbic System

The limbic system is the 2nd layer of the brain. This is comprised of a number of other smaller parts, all of which control emotional responses and behaviour; especially behaviour associated with survival. This will play a key role later in these blogs.

There are several parts of the brain that make up the limbic system but to keep things short I’m going to focus on the Hippocampus and Amygdala.


The Hippocampus’ primary function is that of memory. It sort of stores events, short-term, before passing them other parts of the brain for more permanent storage. An example of this would be learning a new task; your hippocampus would catalog the learning so the information is passed onto your cerebral cortex for long term storage, and your motor centres to store how to move when performing said task.

Connections made by the hippocampus also link into other parts and help with memory association with things like scents etc. This is a vital function for survival! The smell of a predator would be associated with danger and allow you to run away, or prepare to fight before you have seen it; or more importantly before it has seen you! Another service provided by the hippocampus in terms of memory/emotion is to ensure empathetic reactions. For example, if you see somebody crying you feel the need to hug them.



The amygdala plays a key role on your emotional responses, including pleasure, fear, panic etc. Another part of the Limbic system is the Basal Ganglia, this works with the amygdala and regulates “reward” emotions. It also regulates habit-formation based on repetition. This can be good when learning a new task and feeling proud that you have progressed; but conversely bad when forming an addiction to drugs.

The Amygdala talks to the hippocampus when attaching emotions to memories; especially “negative ones”. This may sound like bad idea, but if you’re hunting one day and you see a predator, the following day (if you go back to the same area), you will remember the predator and also the feeling of fear you felt previously - so you’re more likely to not go back.



This is the top and final layer of the mammal brain. I’m now specifying mammal as this is where we split away from others species in terms of brain structure. Humans have the largest Necortex of all mammals. The Neocortex is split into 4 parts; the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. The main function of the Neocortex  is essentially information processing. From visual information, to touch, to sound. Current theories also suggest that human consciousness also originates in the Neocortex. It’s important to note here that although all “higher” brain function takes place in the Neocortex, the driving forces and emotions attached to these functions still originate from the reptile brain and limbic system. This is, effectively, like having a modern super computer that is powered, regulated, and uses hazard protection systems from the days of steam...

This point is VERY important later on.



Next week we take a look at the birth and cementing of consumerism and the origins and evolution of advertising.

Programming the Human Computer by Chris Baldwin

By Justin


Week 1

I have been asked to write a blog about a documentary I have been slowly putting together over the last couple of years. This came as a relief as I’ve been struggling to fully explain what my documentary is actually about.


What’s it all about then?

I normally give the simple answer of “mental health”, which conjures up imagery of interviews with people talking about feeling a bit sad, explaining how they don’t like feeling a bit sad, and how they wished other people noticed and empathised about them feeling a bit sad... this actually covers about 13% of my documentary.

The documentary, my thesis, isn’t just a study by someone who feels bit sad, trying to help other people who feel bit sad.

My documentary is actually an attempt to explain the fundamental causes of what is fast becoming what I consider to be a global epidemic; an epidemic of sadness and unfulfillment!

Depression/anxiety diagnosis are on the rise! I feel people are looking for something to “blame”, I also feel they’re looking in the wrong place!

800,000 people kill themselves per year due to poor mental health. Thats 2191 per day. Suicide is the 2nd biggest killer of people between 15-29 years old.

Mental health awareness and support services currently receive 1% of global aid.

Let me pop that into perspective for you, in 2016 the average number of students in a UK secondary school was approximately 900 pupils. Image when you were at school; all those other students? Times that by 3 and thats how many people end their own lives each day.


The Struggle Is Real

One of the problems I've faced with my research is that its taken a much broader look at the problems with mental health. I have taken a much more holistic approach to the problem, which is fine until you come to explain it to people; people who need everything in their lives to fit into small and very separate boxes...

So when presenting my findings to people I often get, “you need to focus on one section of this,” or something along the lines of, “this has got nothing to do with that”.

The problems when narrowly focusing on just one thing, you tend to ignore anything that isn’t directly related to the subject being focused on. Which is fine in general and actually encouraged but when thinking things that effect a broad range of people in makes sense to take a much broader look at the possible causal factors.


ME, My big head and thoughts

The interviews and researching for my documentary is almost complete and the next phase is to edit it all together into something that makes sense... which will basically mean leaving a lot of things out! I wrote a 10,645 word dissertation on the whole thesis but it reads like the diaries Kevin Spacey (EW) wrote in the film, Se7en. When I was offered the chance to ‘blogerise’ my thesis I jumped at it as it will give me a platform to fully express/explain the full breadth of my thesis in a far less formal way.

I will, of course, provide links to academic papers, articles and documentaries which add weight to my ideas and hopefully achieve my goal of fully expressing what I feel to be the fundamental cause of virtually ALL problems in the world... imagine the level of ego required to actually believe I've solved everything!

FYI, its not 42.


The Trip

A step by step guide to my thesis and what ill be covering in the blog: -

• Evolution of the human brain.

• Beginnings of Consumerism – 1723, doctor by the name of Bernard Mandeville.

• WW1 – WW2 – Developing propaganda and using behavioural psychology – “psychological advertising”.

• Post WW2 baby boom generation – Edward Bernays – using fear of not fitting into the tribe as a way to market material goods – imagery of “happy” people using goods that they own due to being “successful” – the idea being that the ownership of these goods reflects how successful they are.

• Advertising (Mad Men).

• The concept that “happiness” is a key indicator of “success” and “success” meaning you are top of the tribe.

• 90s-00’s – development of social media.

• 2010 onward – posting selfies and other personal images on social media becomes more and more common place – “hyper reality” – people begin to exaggerate their lives via social media to show how successful they are, which indicates happiness (replicating codes and conventions of advertising imagery).

• Imagery people post of their “personal life” begins to emulate imagery used in advertising, the two begin to reflect each other (art imitates life) ( – this extends beyond selfies – other research available

• Using the theories of Jean Baudrillard - and his work on the “hyper real”, my suggestion based on research and other academic papers is that “reality”, ie normal life with the full length and breadth of human emotion has been “replaced” with the reality we have seen in advertising over the last 100 years. The best way to picture this is thinking in terms of the film the Matrix.

• Addiction to joy and the need to be perceived as “better than others” to demonstrate social dominance).

• Attempting to replicate the life we see in adverts and on social media.

• Constantly trying and constantly failing to live a life that is in “reality” impossible is causing mass anxiety and depression.

• In turn, this social need to always be happy has meant that people with genetic/long term mental health disorders are ostracised from society.



Right... now all of thats out the way lets get started shall we?

The first port of call with this insanity is to take a look at the B R A I N! Not the human brain, not just yet! We need to look at the development of brains in general...

So check out this chap here:

Yes, I'm aware I've just said “not the human brain”, then immediately followed that statement with a picture of the human brain. If you take a look at the labels someone else has taken to time to put in this picture you will see this cross section of brain is split into three separate levels.

These are the Neocortex, the Limbic system and the Reptilian brain. Now you may think that these are just labels to easily identify sections of the brain and what they’re responsible for, they’re not.They are three separate sections of the brain and evolved from bottom to top.

If you took a look at a cross section of a new build house you would basically see:

• Floor

• Walls

• Ceiling

The foundation of a house is built first, then walls then ceiling etc etc, our brains have been constructed, over millions of years, in very much the same way.

The reptilian brain is called so as we inherited it from reptiles, who inherited it from fish who evolved from single cell life around 542 (clearly 42 is part of the answer after all) million years ago during an event called the Cambrian Explosion. Here is a terrible 6 minute video hosted by a very pink man who (very basically) explains the reptilian brain.

Basically this “original” brain existed in pre-historic lizards as a mechanism to automise things like breathing, temperature regulation and basic survival like mating (genetic survival) and territoriality (defending territory, attacking those that “don’t belong”).

So imagine, there you are, a little dino walking through the jungle when suddenly you’re confronted by a possible threat, your “brain” kicks in, floods the body with hormones and you have the strength to either attack or run away, more commonly known as fight or flight. Its important to note at this stage that all actions “controlled” by the reptile brain were instinctual, no choices were made. Just like how our hearts beat etc.

Clearly, not dying is the most fundamental element of survival so this part of the brain became a raging success and all other life that survived did so due to having this basic biological algorithm, pretty sweet eh?

Sadly, this didn’t helper friend the little dino or any other dino when that asteroid hit the Yucatan Peninsula Mexico 65 million years ago and wiped them all out. Mammals survived though, thats us, well its not, its little rat things that became us. With that special survival program built into us...



The next 2 levels of Brain

The beginning and cementing of consumerism